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    Ongoing observations by End Point Dev people

    Full-text search on a budget: Xapian

    Marco Pessotto

    By Marco Pessotto
    August 19, 2021

    Mounted telescope monocular pointing through a wire fence

    Over the years I’ve seen and implemented different full-text search applications using various technologies: plain SQL, PostgreSQL, Elasticsearch, Solr, and most recently Xapian.

    While Solr and Elasticsearch are very well known, Xapian, despite the fact that it’s available and packaged in all the major GNU/Linux distributions, doesn’t seem to be so popular, at least not among project managers.

    But Xapian is fast, advanced, can be configured to do faceted searches (so the user can filter the search results), and my favorite, is fast to build and has virtually no maintenance overhead.

    Its main feature is that it’s not a stand-alone application, like Solr or Elasticsearch, but instead it’s a library written in C++ which has bindings for all the major languages (as advertised on its homepage). It has also great documentation.

    Now, being in the e-commerce business, my typical use-case is that the client’s shop needs something faster and better than a search using a SQL query against the products table. And beware, even implementing a non-trivial SQL-based search can burn more hours than setting up Xapian.

    With Xapian you can prototype very quickly, without losing hours wading through obscure options, setting up services and configuring firewalls. And yet, the prototype will allow you to build more advanced features once you need them.

    I’m a Perl guy, so I will show you some Perl code, but the procedure is the same for the other languages. Even the documentation can be built specifically for your language!

    Typically, to add a search engine to your site you need two pieces: an indexer to which you feed the data (from static files or databases or even fetching remote pages or whatever you need) and the search itself in the site.

    Both the indexer and the search code need to load the Xapian library and point to the same Xapian database, which is usually a directory (or a file pointing to a directory).


    Now, stripped down to the minimum, this is what a typical indexer’s code looks like:

    #!/usr/bin/env perl
    use utf8;
    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Search::Xapian (':all');
    use JSON qw/encode_json/;
    my $dblocation = "xapiandb";
    my $xapian = Search::Xapian::WritableDatabase->new($dblocation, DB_CREATE_OR_OPEN);
    my $indexer = Search::Xapian::TermGenerator->new;
    my @entries = ({ uri => '/blog/1', title => 'T1', text => 'Marco loves pizza' },
                   { uri => '/blog/2', title => 'T2', text => 'They love chapati' });
    foreach my $data (@entries) {
        my $doc = Search::Xapian::Document->new;
        my $qterm = 'Q' . $data->{uri};
        $doc->set_data(encode_json({ uri => $data->{uri}, title => $data->{title} }));
        $xapian->replace_document_by_term($qterm, $doc);

    This code will create a xapiandb directory with the Xapian database, indexing the blog posts in the @entries array. In a real script, they would come from the database.

    Still, there are a couple of things worth noting in this minimal code.

    We set the stemmer for the given language, so the text passed to the indexer via the index_text call is parsed.

    Then we store the data structure we want to retrieve later with set_data. The best thing to do is probably to serialize it with JSON, in this case I’m excluding the full text, which we don’t need in the output (but it would be wise to add a teaser).

    Also, we use a Q prefix to produce an unique term to update the entry when it already exists.

    Of course the indexer will need to grow if you need more power and more structured data (like filtering or searching a specific field), but at this point we want just to show something to our hypothetical client.

    The database can be inspected very easily. Xapian comes with a tool called delve (or xapian-delve):

    $ xapian-delve xapiandb -a -v -1
    All terms in database (termfreq):
    Q/blog/1 1
    Q/blog/2 1
    Zchapati 1
    Zlove 2
    Zmarco 1
    Zpizza 1
    Zthey 1
    chapati 1
    love 1
    loves 1
    marco 1
    pizza 1
    they 1

    And you can also try a search from the command line with quest:

    $ quest -d xapiandb "loves NOT chapati"
    Parsed Query: Query((Zlove@1 AND_NOT Zchapati@2))
    Exactly 1 matches
    1: [0.0953102]
    $ quest -d xapiandb "pizza OR chapati"
    Parsed Query: Query((Zpizza@1 OR Zchapati@2))
    Exactly 2 matches
    1: [0.405465]
    2: [0.405465]

    As the example above shows, it should be clear that:

    • the search works as you would expect (with logical operators) out of the box

    • the stemming works, searching for “loves” and “love” is the same.

    • the results give us back the JSON we stored in the index.


    So let’s call it done and move to the next part, the searcher.

    Now, while the indexer is a single script, the search needs to be plugged into the live code of your site. For the purposes of this article, I will provide a script instead, which does basically the same thing as quest. Plugging it into the web application is left as an exercise for the reader. I would also suggest to put both the indexing and searching code in a single shared module, keeping the logic in a single location.

    #!/usr/bin/env perl
    use utf8;
    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Search::Xapian ':all';
    use JSON;
    my ($cgi) = join(' ', @ARGV);
    my $dblocation = "xapiandb";
    my $database = Search::Xapian::Database->new($dblocation);
    my $enquire = Search::Xapian::Enquire->new($database);
    my $qp = Search::Xapian::QueryParser->new;
    my $query = $qp->parse_query($cgi, FLAG_PHRASE|FLAG_BOOLEAN|FLAG_WILDCARD);
    # fetch the first 50 results
    my $mset = $enquire->get_mset(0, 50);
    print "Total results: " . $mset->get_matches_estimated . "\n";
    my $json_pretty = JSON->new->pretty(1)->utf8(1)->canonical(1);
    foreach my $m ($mset->items) {
        my $data = decode_json($m->get_document->get_data);
        # decode and reencode the json in a human-readable fashion
        print $json_pretty->encode($data);

    If you’re wondering what those constants are and where to look for more, they are in the module’s documentation, in plain sight (we asked for them when loading the module with the :all argument).

    Most of the code shown here is boilerplate, but that could change once you build up. Notably we set the stemmer for the current language and the query parser options, so we can use wildcard (e.g. piz*), the AND/OR operators, and quoting.

    Let’s see the script in action.


    $ ./search.pl 'piz'
    Total results: 0
    $ ./search.pl 'piz*'
    Total results: 1
       "title" : "T1",
       "uri" : "/blog/1"


    $ ./search.pl 'pizza OR chapati'
    Total results: 2
       "title" : "T1",
       "uri" : "/blog/1"
       "title" : "T2",
       "uri" : "/blog/2"
    $ ./search.pl 'pizza AND chapati'
    Total results: 0

    Quoting (beware here the double quotes to escape the shell):

    $ ./search.pl '"loves chapati"'
    Total results: 0
    $ ./search.pl '"love chapati"'
    Total results: 1
       "title" : "T2",
       "uri" : "/blog/2"

    The whole thing already looks pretty good. Way better (and way faster to code and to execute) than a home-baked SQL search.

    As already noted, this is just scratching the surface. Xapian can do much more: filtering, range queries, facets, sorting, even spelling corrections!

    I don’t doubt that Solr & co. have their use-cases, but for the common scenario of a small/​mid-sized e-shop or site, I think that this solution is more affordable and maintainable than having a whole separate application (like a Solr server) to maintain, upgrade and secure. Don’t forget that here we haven’t done a single HTTP request. We didn’t have to manage daemons, opening/​closing ports, and the like. We didn’t have to configure a schema and a tokenizer in a separate application (and keep that aligned with the handling code). It’s all there in our (Perl) code in two files (as already noted, the logic should live in a single module).

    We just installed a library (there is a very good chance that it’s already installed) and a Perl module.

    The Xapian database lives on the disk and your code has full control over it. Also it’s normally your GNU/Linux distribution taking care of the security upgrades.

    If your client is on a budget, building a full-text search Xapian can be the right choice, and you can scale it up on the go, as more features are required.

    database search perl