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    Ongoing observations by End Point Dev people

    Lock up your keys

    Jeff Boes

    By Jeff Boes
    February 9, 2012

    Locking hash keys with Hash::Util

    It’s a given that you shouldn’t write Perl without “use strict”; it prevents all kinds of silent bugs involving misspelled and uninitialized variables. A similar aid for misspelled and uninitialized hash keys exists in the module “Hash::Util”.

    By way of background: I was working on a long chunk of code that prepares an e-commerce order for storage in a database. Many of the incoming fields map directly to the table, but others do not. The interface between this code and the page which submits a large JSON structure was in flux for a while, so from time to time I had to chase bugs involving “missing” or “extra” fields. I settled on a restricted hash to help me squash these and future bugs.

    The idea of a restricted hash is to clamp down on Perl’s rather loose “record” structure (by which I mean the common practice of using a hash to represent a record with named fields), which is great in some circumstances. While in most programming languages you must pre-declare a structure and live with it, in Perl hashes you can add new keys on the fly, misspellings and all. A restricted hash can only have a particular set of keys, but is still a hash for all other purposes.

    An example:

    my %hash = (aaa => 1, bbb => 2);

    Attempts to reference $hash{ccc} will not return an error, but only an undefined value. We can now lock the hash so that its current roster of keys will be constant:

        use Hash::Util qw(lock_keys);

    and now $hash{ccc} is not only undefined, it’s a run-time error:

        Attempt to access disallowed key 'ccc' in a restricted hash

    If we know the list of keys before the hash is initialized, we can set it up like this:

        my %hash;
        lock_keys(%hash, qw(aaa bbb ccc));

    Keep in mind the values of $hash{aaa}, etc. are mutable (can be undefined, not exist, scalars, references, etc.), just like a normal hash.

    What if our key roster needs to change over the course of the program? In my example, there were several kinds of transactions being sent via JSON, and I needed to validate and restrict fields based on the presence and values of other fields. E.g.,

        if ($hash{record_type} eq 'A') {
            # validate %hash for aaa, bbb, ccc
        else {
            # validate %hash for aaa, bbb, ddd; ccc should not appear

    You can add to or modify the accepted keys as you go, but it’s a two-step process: not even Hash::Util can modify the keys of a locked hash, so you have to unlock and re-lock:

        my %hash;
        lock_keys(%hash, qw(record_type aaa bbb ccc));
        # …
        if ($hash{record_type} eq 'A') {
            lock_keys(%hash, qw(record_type aaa bbb ccc));
        else {
            lock_keys(%hash, qw(record_type aaa bbb ddd));

    Of course, that’s kind of wordy: we’d really rather just splice in a key here and there. Hash::Util has you covered, because you can retrieve the list of legal keys for a hash (even if it’s not currently locked):

        lock_keys_plus(%hash, qw(ddd));

    adds ‘ddd’ to the list, keeping the previous keys as well. However, if any of the legal keys are not current keys, they won’t make it into the key roster. Instead, use:

        lock_keys_plus(%hash, (legal_keys(%hash), qw(more keys here)));

    Everything shown here for hashes is also available for hashrefs: for instance, to lock up a hashref $hr:

        lock_ref_keys_plus($hr, (legal_ref_keys($hr), qw(other keys)));

    Of course, adding all this locking and unlocking adds complexity to your code, so you should consider carefully whether it’s justified. In my case I had 60+ keys, in a nested structure, spanning 1500 lines of code — I just could not keep all the correct spellings in my head any more, so now when I write

        if ($opt->{order_status})

    when I mean “transaction_status”, I’ll get a helpful run-time error instead of a silent skip of that block of code.

    Are there other approaches? Yes, depending on your needs: JSON::Schema, for instance, will let you validate a JSON structure against a “golden master”. However, it does not prevent subsequent assignments to the structure, creating new keys on the fly (possibly in error). Moose would support a restricted object like this, but may add more complexity than you need, so Hash::Util may be the appropriate, lighter-weight approach.

    json perl